What kind of Vaccines for Covid-19 will be available in the next year.
Much pressure lies with scientists and medical researchers to develop an effective vaccine for COVID-19. Over 23 million people have been infected with COVID-19 worldwide, and 809,000 deaths have resulted. The infection rate in the United States is the highest in the world.
Types of COVID-19 vaccines Being Tested
Weakened, live viral vaccines: For this type of vaccine, the virus is grown in laboratories. As the virus grows in the lab, it is weakened and thus less capable of reproducing in people. The weakened virus is employed to make the vaccine and reproduces sufficiently in humans to induce an immune response, but not enough to make to cause illness. This is the same tactic used for the measles, chickenpox, mumps and other rotavirus vaccines.
Replicating viral vector vaccines — The Ebola vaccine used this approach. Added to virus that does not cause disease (vector virus) is a gene which codes for (in this instance) the coronavirus spike protein, which attaches the virus to cells. Upon vaccine administration, the vector virus reproduces in cells and the immune system creates antibodies against its proteins, which prevents COVID-19 from binding to cells.
Non-replicating viral vector vaccines — Like the replicating viral vector vaccines, a gene is inserted into a vector virus. The vector virus however does not reproduce in the vaccine recipient. No current vaccines are known to use this approach.
DNA vaccines — The gene that codes for the COVID-19 spike protein is inserted into plasmids of the DNA and the plasmids are injected as the vaccine. No current vaccines are known to use this approach.
mRNA vaccines — The vaccines contain messenger RNA, called mRNA, which is processed in cells to make proteins. The immune system creates a response against the produced proteins (the COVID-19 spike protein) to create immunity. mRNA and DNA vaccines may be produced relatively quickly. No current vaccines are known to use this approach, but Pfizer and German company Biotech are working on this vaccine.
Inactivated vaccine — The virus killed with a chemical is used to make the vaccine. Hepatitis A, polio and rabies vaccines us this approach.
Subunit vaccine — A piece of the virus that is important for immunity, like the spike protein of COVID-19, is used to create this type of vaccine. The hepatitis and human papillomavirus vaccines use this approach.